Glycidamide and cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA) as potential carcinogens and promoters of liver cancer - An in vitro study

Sofia Gouveia-Fernandes, Armanda Rodrigues, Carolina Nunes, Catarina Charneira, João Nunes, Jacinta Serpa, Alexandra M.M. Antunes

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Acrylamide and furan are environmental and food contaminants that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), giving rise to glycidamide and cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA) metabolites, respectively. Both glycidamide and BDA are electrophilic species that react with nucleophilic groups, being able to introduce mutations in DNA and perform epigenetic remodeling. However, whereas these carcinogens are primarily metabolized in the liver, the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide and furan in this organ is still controversial, based on findings from experimental animal studies. With the ultimate goal of providing further insights into this issue, we explored in vitro, using a hepatocyte cell line and a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, the putative effect of these metabolites as carcinogens and cancer promoters. Molecular alterations were investigated in cells that survive glycidamide and BDA toxicity. We observed that those cells express CD133 stemness marker, present a high proliferative capacity and display an adjusted expression profile of genes encoding enzymes involved in oxidative stress control, such as GCL-C, GSTP1, GSTA3 and CAT. These molecular changes seem to be underlined, at least in part, by epigenetic remodeling involving histone deacetylases (HDACs). Although more studies are needed, here we present more insights towards the carcinogenic capacity of glycidamide and BDA and also point out their effect in favoring hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113251
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • cis-2-Butene-1,4-dial (BDA)
  • Glycidamide
  • Liver cancer promotion
  • Liver carcinogenesis
  • Oxidative stress


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