Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Eugenol (1-allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene; CAS No. 97-53-0), a compound extracted from clove oil and marjoram, is widely used as a food flavouring substance and is present in spices such as basil, cinnamon and nutmeg. It is also used in dentistry as an antiseptic and analgesic. Structural similarities with the class IIB IARC carcinogen safrole raises questions on its putative carcinogenicity. We evaluated the genotoxicity of eugenol in V79 cells using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), with and without rat liver biotransformation (S9). Eugenol induced CAs, with significant increases (3.5% aberrant cells) at 2500 mu M, demonstrating cytotoxicity at higher doses. S9 increased the induction of CAs in a dose-dependent manner to 15% at 2500 mu M, with a high frequency of chromatid exchanges. In particular, an increase of endoreduplicated cells was observed, from 0% at control levels to 2.3 and 5% at 2000 mu M, without and with S9, respectively. Since endoreduplication has been linked to inhibition of topoisomerase II, the topoisomerase II inhibitor ICRF-193 was used as a control inducer of endoreduplication (0.1-0.5 mu M), increasing the number of endoreduplicated cells from 0% (control) to 3.5% (0.5 mu M). S9 did not influence endoreduplication by ICRF-193. Both eugenol and ICRF-193 were also assayed for inhibition of topoisomerase II, and both showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, with ICRF-193 being a more potent inhibitor. Our results confirm that eugenol is genotoxic and raises the possibility of it having topoisomerase II inhibiting activity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-204
Number of pages5
JournalMutagenesis
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

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Endoreduplication
Eugenol
Type II DNA Topoisomerase
Food
Aberrations
Chromosome Aberrations
Safrole
Clove Oil
Myristica fragrans
Ocimum basilicum
Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Origanum
Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
Dentistry
Spices
Chromatids
Local Anti-Infective Agents
Level control
Cytotoxicity
Biotransformation

Cite this

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title = "Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol",
abstract = "Eugenol (1-allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene; CAS No. 97-53-0), a compound extracted from clove oil and marjoram, is widely used as a food flavouring substance and is present in spices such as basil, cinnamon and nutmeg. It is also used in dentistry as an antiseptic and analgesic. Structural similarities with the class IIB IARC carcinogen safrole raises questions on its putative carcinogenicity. We evaluated the genotoxicity of eugenol in V79 cells using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), with and without rat liver biotransformation (S9). Eugenol induced CAs, with significant increases (3.5{\%} aberrant cells) at 2500 mu M, demonstrating cytotoxicity at higher doses. S9 increased the induction of CAs in a dose-dependent manner to 15{\%} at 2500 mu M, with a high frequency of chromatid exchanges. In particular, an increase of endoreduplicated cells was observed, from 0{\%} at control levels to 2.3 and 5{\%} at 2000 mu M, without and with S9, respectively. Since endoreduplication has been linked to inhibition of topoisomerase II, the topoisomerase II inhibitor ICRF-193 was used as a control inducer of endoreduplication (0.1-0.5 mu M), increasing the number of endoreduplicated cells from 0{\%} (control) to 3.5{\%} (0.5 mu M). S9 did not influence endoreduplication by ICRF-193. Both eugenol and ICRF-193 were also assayed for inhibition of topoisomerase II, and both showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, with ICRF-193 being a more potent inhibitor. Our results confirm that eugenol is genotoxic and raises the possibility of it having topoisomerase II inhibiting activity.",
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Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol. / Maralhas, A; Monteiro, A; Martins, C.; Kranendonk, M.; Laires, A.; Rueff, J.; Rodrigues, A.S.

In: Mutagenesis, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2006, p. 199-204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genotoxicity and endoreduplication inducing activity of the food flavouring eugenol

AU - Maralhas, A

AU - Monteiro, A

AU - Martins, C.

AU - Kranendonk, M.

AU - Laires, A.

AU - Rueff, J.

AU - Rodrigues, A.S.

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PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Eugenol (1-allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene; CAS No. 97-53-0), a compound extracted from clove oil and marjoram, is widely used as a food flavouring substance and is present in spices such as basil, cinnamon and nutmeg. It is also used in dentistry as an antiseptic and analgesic. Structural similarities with the class IIB IARC carcinogen safrole raises questions on its putative carcinogenicity. We evaluated the genotoxicity of eugenol in V79 cells using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), with and without rat liver biotransformation (S9). Eugenol induced CAs, with significant increases (3.5% aberrant cells) at 2500 mu M, demonstrating cytotoxicity at higher doses. S9 increased the induction of CAs in a dose-dependent manner to 15% at 2500 mu M, with a high frequency of chromatid exchanges. In particular, an increase of endoreduplicated cells was observed, from 0% at control levels to 2.3 and 5% at 2000 mu M, without and with S9, respectively. Since endoreduplication has been linked to inhibition of topoisomerase II, the topoisomerase II inhibitor ICRF-193 was used as a control inducer of endoreduplication (0.1-0.5 mu M), increasing the number of endoreduplicated cells from 0% (control) to 3.5% (0.5 mu M). S9 did not influence endoreduplication by ICRF-193. Both eugenol and ICRF-193 were also assayed for inhibition of topoisomerase II, and both showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, with ICRF-193 being a more potent inhibitor. Our results confirm that eugenol is genotoxic and raises the possibility of it having topoisomerase II inhibiting activity.

AB - Eugenol (1-allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene; CAS No. 97-53-0), a compound extracted from clove oil and marjoram, is widely used as a food flavouring substance and is present in spices such as basil, cinnamon and nutmeg. It is also used in dentistry as an antiseptic and analgesic. Structural similarities with the class IIB IARC carcinogen safrole raises questions on its putative carcinogenicity. We evaluated the genotoxicity of eugenol in V79 cells using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), with and without rat liver biotransformation (S9). Eugenol induced CAs, with significant increases (3.5% aberrant cells) at 2500 mu M, demonstrating cytotoxicity at higher doses. S9 increased the induction of CAs in a dose-dependent manner to 15% at 2500 mu M, with a high frequency of chromatid exchanges. In particular, an increase of endoreduplicated cells was observed, from 0% at control levels to 2.3 and 5% at 2000 mu M, without and with S9, respectively. Since endoreduplication has been linked to inhibition of topoisomerase II, the topoisomerase II inhibitor ICRF-193 was used as a control inducer of endoreduplication (0.1-0.5 mu M), increasing the number of endoreduplicated cells from 0% (control) to 3.5% (0.5 mu M). S9 did not influence endoreduplication by ICRF-193. Both eugenol and ICRF-193 were also assayed for inhibition of topoisomerase II, and both showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, with ICRF-193 being a more potent inhibitor. Our results confirm that eugenol is genotoxic and raises the possibility of it having topoisomerase II inhibiting activity.

KW - INHIBITORS

KW - ABERRATIONS

KW - CHINESE-HAMSTER CELLS

KW - MICRONUCLEI

KW - CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION

KW - MAMMALIAN-CELLS

KW - INDUCTION

KW - CLASTOGENICITY

KW - ACTIVATION

KW - TOPOISOMERASE-II

U2 - 10.1093/mutage/gel017

DO - 10.1093/mutage/gel017

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 199

EP - 204

JO - Mutagenesis

JF - Mutagenesis

SN - 0267-8357

IS - 3

ER -