Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity

Chris Todd Hittinger, Antonis Rokas, Feng Yan Bai, Teun Boekhout, Paula Gonçalves, Thomas W. Jeffries, Jacek Kominek, Marc André Lachance, Diego Libkind, Carlos A. Rosa, José Paulo Sampaio, Cletus P. Kurtzman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the common human commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans; and over 1000 other known species (with more continuing to be discovered). Yeasts are found in every biome and continent and are more genetically diverse than angiosperms or chordates. Ease of culture, simple life cycles, and small genomes (~10-20. Mbp) have made yeasts exceptional models for molecular genetics, biotechnology, and evolutionary genomics. Here we discuss recent developments in understanding the genomic underpinnings of the making of yeast biodiversity, comparing and contrasting natural and human-associated evolutionary processes. Only a tiny fraction of yeast biodiversity and metabolic capabilities has been tapped by industry and science. Expanding the taxonomic breadth of deep genomic investigations will further illuminate how genome function evolves to encode their diverse metabolisms and ecologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-109
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Opinion in Genetics and Development
Volume35
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

Keywords

  • HORIZONTAL GENE-TRANSFER
  • SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE GENOME
  • LAGER-BREWING YEAST
  • POPULATION GENOMICS
  • DRAFT GENOME
  • INTERSPECIES HYBRID
  • CANDIDA-ALBICANS
  • SEQUENCE
  • EVOLUTION
  • REVEALS

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