National border areas are special places for the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). These regions concentrate vulnerable populations and constant population movements. Understanding the dynamics of the transmission of MTB is fundamental to propose control measures and to monitor drug resistance. We conducted a population-based prospective study of tuberculosis (TB) to evaluate molecular characteristics ofMTBisolates circulating in Roraima, a state on the border of Venezuela and Guyana. Eighty isolates were genotyped by IS6110-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), spoligotyping, and 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of repeats tandem (MIRU-VNTR). Drug susceptibility tests were performed by using the proportion method and GeneXpert ® MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Isolates showing a phenotypic resistance profile were submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Spoligotyping showed 40 distinct patterns with a high prevalence of Latin-American andMediterranean (LAM), Haarlem(H), and the "ill-defined" T clades. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit -VNTR and IS6110-RFLP showed clustering rates of 21.3%and 30%, respectively. Drug resistancewas detected in 11 (15.1%) isolates, and all were found to have primary resistance; among these, six (8.2%) isolates were streptomycinmonoresistant, four (5.4%) isoniazid mono-resistant, and one (1.3%) multidrug resistant. This is the first study on the molecular epidemiology and drug resistance profile of MTB from Roraima. Herein, we describe high diversity of genetic profiles circulating in this region that may be driven by the introduction of new strain types because of large population flow in this region. In summary, our results showed that analyses of these circulating strains can contribute to a better understanding of TB epidemiology in the northern Brazilian border and be useful to establish public health policies on TB prevention.