Genetic diversity and drug resistance of HIV-1 among infected pregnant women newly diagnosed in Luanda, Angola

Cruz S Sebastião, Zoraima Neto, Carlos S de Jesus, Marinela Mirandela, Domingos Jandondo, José C Couto-Fernandez, Amilcar Tanuri, Joana Morais, Miguel Brito

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Monitoring genetic diversity and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) is critical for understanding HIV epidemiology. Here, we report HIV-1 genetic diversity and DRMs in blood samples from 42 HIV-positive pregnant women naive to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in Luanda. The samples were subjected to nested-PCR, followed by sequencing of HIV-1 pol gene, targeting the protease and reverse transcriptase fragments. HIV-1 diversity was analyzed using the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool and DRMs were identified using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. A total of 34 sequences were obtained. The data revealed wide HIV-1 subtypes heterogeneity, with subtype C (38%, 13/34) the most frequent, followed by the subtypes F1 (18%, 6/34), A1 (9%, 3/34), G (9%, 3/34), D (6%, 2/34) and H (3%, 1/34). In addition, recombinants strains were detected, with CRF02_AG (6%, 2/34) the most frequent, followed by CRF37_cpx, F1/C, A1/G and H/G, all with 3% (1/34). A total of 6/34 (18%) of the sequences presented DRMs. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors presented 15% (5/34) of resistance. Moreover, 1/34 (3%) sequence presented resistance against both non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, simultaneously. Despite the small sample size, our results suggest the need to update currently used ART regimens. Surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes and DRMs are necessary to understand HIV epidemiology and to guide modification of ART guidelines in Angola.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0225251
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2019


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Angola
  • Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Drug Resistance, Viral
  • Female
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotyping Techniques
  • HIV Infections/diagnosis
  • HIV-1/classification
  • Humans
  • Phylogeny
  • Population Surveillance
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology
  • Sample Size
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
  • Young Adult
  • pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics


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