Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from Beira, Mozambique

Ricardo Manuel Soares Parreira, João Mário Brás da Piedade, Ana Filipa Domingues, Daniela Lobão, Marisa Santos, Teresa Venenno, João Luís dos Santos Baptista, Sela A. S. Mussa, Avertino T. L. Barreto, Alberto João Baptista, Aida Maria da Conceição Esteves Simões

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14 Citations (Scopus)


In this report, we examined the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in the city of Beira, the second largest metropolitan area in Mozambique. A total of 131 blood samples, collected between August and October 2003 from antiretroviral-naive individuals, were characterized with a combined approach consisting of heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) subtyping for gag (n = 74) and/or env (n = 117) genes, and DNA sequence analysis of proviral env (C2V3C3, n = 52) LTR (n = 30) and/or pol (n = 43) genomic regions. Aside from the identification, by bootscanning analysis, of a viral strain with a C/A(1) mosaic C2V3C3 structure, classified as subtype A by env HMA, phylogenetic inference studies of the sequence data demonstrated the circulation of genetically diverse subtype C viruses, predominantly of the R5 type. Inspection of the LTR sequences revealed a pattern of structural and regulatory elements typical of subtype C, with 63.3% of the viruses showing three NF-kappa B binding sites. Analysis of the predicted protease sequences enabled us to detect a single primary mutation (184V, n = 1) associated with resistance to protease inhibitors (PI), while secondary mutations were highly prevalent, some of them in combinations which may confer PI resistance. Although an unexpectedly high rate (11.6%) of reverse transcriptase key mutations (V75A, K103N, Y181C, M184I, or P236L) was detected in the sequences analyzed, our data suggest the non-epidemic circulation of resistant viruses, and the absence of multi-class drug resistant viral strains.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2442-2451
Number of pages9
JournalMicrobes And Infection
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006


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