Genetic biomarkers in chronic myeloid leukemia: What have we learned so far?

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Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a rare malignant proliferative disease of the hematopoietic system, whose molecular hallmark is the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph). The Ph chromosome originates an aberrant fusion gene with abnormal kinase activity, leading to the buildup of reactive oxygen species and genetic instability of relevance in disease progression. Several genetic abnormalities have been correlated with CML in the blast phase, including chromosomal aberrations and common altered genes. Some of these genes are involved in the regulation of cell apoptosis and proliferation, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumor protein p53 (TP53), or Schmidt-Ruppin A-2 proto-oncogene (SRC); cell adhesion, e.g., catenin beta 1(CTNNB1); or genes associated to TGF-β, such as SKI like proto-oncogene (SKIL), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) or transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFB2); and TNF-α pathways, such as Tumor necrosis factor (TNFA) or Nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1). The involvement of miRNAs in CML is also gaining momentum, where dysregulation of some critical miRNAs, such as miRNA-451 and miRNA-21, which have been associated to the molecular modulation of pathogenesis, progression of disease states, and response to therapeutics. In this review, the most relevant genomic alterations found in CML will be addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12516
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 19 Nov 2021


  • Chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Genetic biomarkers
  • Genomic instability
  • MiRNAs
  • Philadelphia chromosome


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