Introduction: Autosomal dominant tubulo-interstitial kidney disease due to UMOD mutations (ADTKD-UMOD) is a rare condition associated with high variability in the age of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The minor allele of rs4293393, located in the promoter of the UMOD gene, is present in 19% of the population and downregulates uromodulin production by approximately 50% and might affect the age of ESKD. The goal of this study was to better understand the genetic and clinical characteristics of ADTKD-UMOD and to perform a Mendelian randomization study to determine if the minor allele of rs4293393 was associated with better kidney survival. Methods: An international group of collaborators collected clinical and genetic data on 722 affected individuals from 249 families with 125 mutations, including 28 new mutations. The median age of ESKD was 47 years. Men were at a much higher risk of progression to ESKD (hazard ratio 1.78, P < 0.001). Results: The allele frequency of the minor rs4293393 allele was only 11.6% versus the 19% expected (P < 0.01), resulting in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium and precluding a Mendelian randomization experiment. An in vitro score reflecting the severity of the trafficking defect of uromodulin mutants was found to be a promising predictor of the age of ESKD. Conclusion: We report the clinical characteristics associated with 125 UMOD mutations. Male gender and a new in vitro score predict age of ESKD.
- autosomal dominant uromodulin kidney disease