In this paper, a GBT-based finite element previously developed by the authors for steel-concrete composite beams, which incorporates cross-section deformation (including shear lag effects) and concrete creep, is enhanced by including concrete cracking effects. In particular, a fixed smeared crack model with two orthogonal cracks is consistently combined with creep using a strain decomposition approach. As in the previous finite element, creep is modelled using a linear visco-elastic law and a Dirichlet series expansion of the creep function. A set of illustrative numerical examples is presented, to show the capabilities of the proposed element. For comparison purposes, shell finite element model results are provided. It is demonstrated that the proposed element makes it possible to obtain very accurate results with a relatively small number of cross-section deformation modes (cross-section DOFs) and finite elements, thus leading to significant computational savings with respect to shell element models.
- Concrete cracking
- Concrete creep
- Cross-section deformation
- Generalised beam theory (GBT)
- Shear lag
- Steel-concrete composite beams