GBT Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Beams: Recent Developments

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This paper reports the most recent developments concerning Generalized Beam Theory (GBT) formulations, and corresponding finite element implementations, for steel-concrete composite beams. These formulations are able to perform the following types of analysis: (i) materially nonlinear analysis, to calculate the beam load-displacement response, up to collapse, including steel plasticity, concrete cracking/crushing and shear lag effects, (ii) bifurcation (linear stability) analysis, to obtain local/distortional bifurcation loads and buckling mode shapes of beams subjected to negative (hogging) bending, accounting for shear lag and concrete cracking effects and (iii) long-term service analysis including creep, cracking and arbitrary cross-section deformation (which includes shear lag) effects. The potential (computational efficiency and accuracy) of the proposed GBT-based finite elements is illustrated through several numerical examples. For comparison purposes, results obtained with standard finite strip and shell/brick finite element models are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2041007
JournalInternational Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics
Issue number13(SI)
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • concrete cracking
  • concrete creep
  • cross-section deformation
  • Generalized Beam Theory (GBT)
  • shear lag
  • Steel-concrete composite beams


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