Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Immigrants in Portugal: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

L Costa, S Dias, MR Martins

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5 Citations (Scopus)


This study aims to compare adequate fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake between immigrants and natives in Portugal, and to analyse factors associated with consumption of F&V among immigrants. Data from a population based cross-sectional study (2014) was used. The final sample comprised 17,410 participants (≥20 years old), of whom 7.4% were immigrants. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the association between adequate F&V intake, sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle characteristics. Adequate F&V intake was more prevalent among immigrants (21.1% (95% CI: 19.0⁻23.4)) than natives (18.5% (95% CI: 17.9⁻19.1)), (p = 0.000). Association between migrant status and adequate F&V intake was only evident for men: immigrants were less likely to achieve an adequate F&V intake (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.66⁻0.68) when compared to Portuguese. Among immigrants, being female, older, with a higher education, and living in a low urbanisation area increased the odds of having F&V consumption closer to the recommendations. Adjusting for other factors, length of residence appears as a risk factor (15 or more years vs. 0⁻9 years: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.50⁻0.53), (p = 0.000) for adequate F&V intake. Policies aiming to promote adequate F&V consumption should consider both populations groups, and gender-based strategies should address proper sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle determinants.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2299
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2018


  • Portuguese
  • Fruit
  • Health
  • Immigrant
  • Vegetables


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