Friction Stir Welding assisted by electrical Joule effect

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This paper presents a variant of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) aiming to minimize or eliminate the root defects that still constitute a major constrain to a wider dissemination of FSW into industrial applications. The concept is based on the use of an external electrical energy source, delivering a high intensity current, passing through a thin layer of material between the back plate and the lower tip of the tool probe. Heat generated by Joule effect improves material viscoplasticity in this region, minimizing the root defects. The concept was validated by analytical and experimental analysis. For the later, a new dedicated tool was designed, manufactured and tested. Numerical simulations were performed to study the electrical current flow pattern and its effect on the material below the probe tip. The potential use of this variant was shown by reducing the size of the weld root defect, even for significant levels of lack of penetration, without affecting overall metallurgical characteristics of the welded joints.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2127-2133
JournalJournal Of Materials Processing Technology
Issue number10(SI)
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


  • Electrical current
  • Friction Stir Welding
  • FSW variant
  • Joule effect
  • Root defects


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