Fluoroquinolone-Based Organic Salts and Ionic Liquids as Highly Bioavailable Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials

Diogo Madeira, Celso Alves, Joana Silva, Catarina Florindo, Alexandra Costa, Željko Petrovski, Isabel M. Marrucho, Rui Pedrosa, Miguel M. Santos, Luís C. Branco

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The majority of antibiotics display low oral bioavailability due to reduced solubility in water and/or inefficient permeability across biological membranes. Their efficiency is further limited by the frequent presence of polymorphic structures with different pharmaceutical activities. In this communication, we present our latest results on the development of organic salts and ionic liquids from fluoroquinolones (FQ-OSILs) as highly efficient ionic formulations of this family of antimicrobials. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were used as anions and as cations, by combination with biocompatible organic counter-ions. In vitro bioavailability studies showed that all prepared FQ-OSILs presented higher solubility in water than the original drugs. All compounds were found to be isomorphic and with tailorable antimicrobial activity according to the cation–anion combination against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event1st International Electronic Conference on Pharmaceutics, IECP 2020 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 1 Dec 202015 Dec 2020


  • active pharmaceutical ingredients as organic salts and ionic liquids (API–OSILs)
  • antibiotics
  • ciprofloxacin
  • fluoroquinolones
  • ionic liquids
  • norfloxacin
  • polymorphism


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