Current literature accepts 17 species in Penicillium section Sclerotiora. Several produce colonies in bright yellow to orange colours and have monoverticillate conidiophores, apart from P. herquei, P. malachiteum and P. nodositatum, which are biverticillate. The focus of this paper is to refine the concepts of the species currently accepted in the section and introduce five new species, named after the Dutch Royal family as P. vanoranjei, P. maximae, P. amaliae, P. alexiae and P. arianeae. Penicillium vanoranjei produces orange (Dutch = oranje) colonies in culture, and is named after Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 'Zijne Koninklijke Hoogheid de Prins van Oranje' (translated from Dutch as: 'His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange') and his family, to coincide with his coronation. We review the current taxonomic positions of P. lilacinoechinulatum and P. nodositatum, both currently considered to be synonyms of P. bilaiae. Sequence data generated in this study show that both species are phylogenetically distinct. Penicillium lilacinoechinulatum is closely related to P. amaliae sp. nov., whereas P. nodositatum does not belong to Penicillium sensu stricto. All species were compared morphologically and phylogenetically, based on beta-tubulin and calmodulin DNA data. A table summarising the morphological characters of all species is included, together with photomicrographs and recommended DNA markers for identification.