Fernandina Wall of Lisbon: Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Rammed Earth and Masonry Mortars

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Abstract

This paper aims to provide information on rammed earth and masonry mortars of the Fernandina defensive Wall of Lisbon, Portugal, which was built in the second half of the 14th century. No previous information exists concerning the materials and construction techniques used in this defensive structure, which is essential to increase knowledge and to define requirements for a reliable conservation. An experimental campaign was carried out on samples extracted in nine different
sections of this structure, which were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and wet chemical analysis. Calcitic lime was employed as a binder in the stone masonry bedding mortars and was also identified in the rammed earth samples. The results obtained allowed us to verify the use of
different binders and aggregates, with heterogeneous binder/aggregate ratios, in different sections of the Wall. To reduce time for lime preparation and to achieve a durable lime matrix, most probably quicklime was used and hydrated together with the moistened earth to produce rammed earth and masonry bedding mortars.
Original languageEnglish
Article number241
Number of pages18
JournalMinerals
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • air lime
  • architectural heritage
  • defensive structure
  • rammed earth
  • stone masonry bedding mortar

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