Factors Influencing Performance of Cholangioscopy-Guided Lithotripsy Including Available Different Technologies: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 94 Patients

Gonçalo Alexandrino, Luís Lopes, João Fernandes, Marta Moreira, Tarcísio Araújo, Sara Campos, Rui Loureiro, Luísa Figueiredo, Luís Carvalho Lourenço, David Horta, Tiago Bana e Costa, Patrício Costa, Jorge Canena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Peroral cholangioscopy (POC)-guided lithotripsy is an effective treatment for difficult biliary stones. A clear definition of factors associated with the efficacy of POC-guided lithotripsy in one session and the performance of electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) and laser lithotripsy (LL) have not clearly emerged. Methods: This was a non-randomized prospective multicenter study of all consecutive patients who underwent POC lithotripsy (using EHL and/or LL) for difficult biliary stones. The primary endpoint of the study was the number of sessions needed to achieve complete ductal clearance and the factors associated with this outcome. Secondary endpoints included the evaluated efficacies of LL and EHL. Results: Ninety-four patients underwent 113 procedures of EHL or LL. Complete ductal clearance was obtained in 93/94 patients (98.94%). In total, 80/94 patients (85.11%) achieved stone clearance in a single session. In the multivariate analysis, stone size was independently associated with the need for multiple sessions to achieve complete ductal clearance (odds ratio = 1.146, 95% confidence interval: 1.055–1.244; p = 0.001). Using ROC curves and the Youden index, 22 mm was found to be the optimal cutoff for stone size (95% confidence interval: 15.71–28.28; p < 0.001). The majority of the patients (62.8%) underwent LL in the first session. Six patients failed the first session with EHL after using two probes and therefore were crossed over to LL, obtaining ductal clearance in a single additional session with a single LL fiber. EHL was significantly associated with a larger number of probes (2.0 vs. 1.02) to achieve ductal clearance (p < 0.01). The mean procedural time was significantly longer for EHL than for LL [72.1 (SD 16.3 min) versus 51.1 (SD 10.5 min)] (p < 0.01). Conclusions: POC is highly effective for difficult biliary stones. Most patients achieved complete ductal clearance in one session, which was significantly more likely for stones < 22 mm. EHL was significantly associated with the need for more probes and a longer procedural time to achieve ductal clearance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4195-4203
JournalDigestive Diseases And Sciences
Volume67
Issue number8
Early online date2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • Cholangioscopy
  • Difficult biliary stones
  • Electrohydraulic lithotripsy
  • Laser lithotripsy

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