Factors associated with prenatal care and HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in primary health care

Claudia Helena Soares de Morais Freitas, Franklin Delano Soares Forte, Ângelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Maria Helena Rodrigues Galvão, Ardigleusa Alves Coelho, S Dias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in Brazil. Methods: This was an ecological study covering all Brazilian municipalities evaluated by the second cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, 2013-2014. The dependent variables were based on prenatal care access: prenatal care appointments, and HIV and syphilis tests during prenatal care. The independent variables were compared with demographic and social characteristics. Bivariate analysis was performed assessing the three outcomes with the independent variables. Variables with significant associations in this bivariate analysis were fit in a Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance to obtain adjusted estimates. Result: Poisson regression analysis showed a statistically significant association with the variables "less than eight years of study" [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.31; 95%CI 1.19-1.45; p < 0.001] and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.72-0.88; p < 0.001) for the outcome of "having less than six prenatal care appointments" and individual variables. A statistically significant association was found for "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.19-1.72; p < 0.001) regarding the outcome from the comparison between HIV testing absence during prenatal care and demographic and social characteristics. The absence of syphilis testing during prenatal care, and demographic and social characteristics presented a statistically significant association for the education level variable "less than eight years of study" (PR =1.75; 95%CI 1.56-1.96; p < 0.001) and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.07-1.36; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The individual factors were associated with prenatal care appointments and HIV and syphilis tests in Brazilian pregnant women. They show missed opportunities for diagnosing HIV and syphilis infection during prenatal care and indicate weaknesses in the quality of maternal health care services to eliminate mother-to-child transmission.
Original languageEnglish
Article number76
Number of pages10
JournalRevista de Saúde Pública
Publication statusPublished - 23 Sep 2019


  • Prenatal Care
  • HIV infections
  • Diagnosis
  • AIDS serodiagnosis
  • Syphilis
  • Congenital
  • Infectious disease transmission
  • Vertical
  • Prevention and control
  • Health care quality
  • Access
  • Evaluation


Dive into the research topics of 'Factors associated with prenatal care and HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in primary health care'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this