We have analyzed factors influencing the outcome of 102 children with acute leukemia given a cord blood transplantation (CBT) and reported to the Eurocord Registry. Seventy patients with acute lymphoblastic and 32 with acute myeloid leukemia were given either a related (n = 42) or an unrelated (n = 60) CBT. Children given CBT during first or second complete remission were considered as belonging to the good-risk group (n = 66), whereas those who received a transplant in a more advanced stage of disease were assigned to the poor-risk group (n = 36). In the related group (RCBT), 12 of 42 patients received transplantation from an HLA-disparate donor, whereas in the unrelated group (UCBT) 54 of 60 received an HLA mismatched CBT. Kaplan-Meier estimates for neutrophil recovery at day 60 were 84% ± 7% in RCBT and 79 ± 6% in UCBT (P = .16). In multivariate analysis, the most important factor influencing neutrophil engraftment in UCBT was a nucleated cell dose infused greater than 3.7 x 107/kg (P = .05, relative risk [RR] of 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-3.4). The incidence of grade II through IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 41% ± 8% in the RCBT group and 37% ± 6% in the UCBT group (P = .59). Kaplan-Meier estimates of 2-year event-free survival (EFS) after RCBT or UCBT were 39% ± 8% and 30% ± 7%, respectively (P = .19). In multivariate analysis, the most important factor influencing EFS was disease status at time of transplantation: good-risk patients had a 2-year EFS of 49% ± 7% as compared to 8% ± 5% in patients with more advanced disease (P = .0003, RR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.65). This was a consequence of both an increased 1-year transplant related mortality and a higher 2-year relapse rate in the poor-risk group (65% ± 9% and 77% ± 14%, respectively), as compared with good risk patients (34% ± 6% and 31% ± 9%, respectively). These data confirm that allogeneic CBT from either a related or an unrelated donor is a feasible procedure able to cure a significant proportion of children with acute leukemia, especially if transplanted in a favorable phase of disease.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jun 1999|