Extract2Chip—Bypassing Protein Purification in Drug Discovery Using Surface Plasmon Resonance

Ana C. F. Paiva, Ana R. Lemos, Philipp Busse, Madalena T. Martins, Diana O. Silva, Micael C. Freitas, Sandra P. Santos, Filipe Freire, Evelyne J. Barrey, Xavier Manival, Lisa Koetzner, Timo Heinrich, Ansgar Wegener, Ulrich Grädler, Tiago M. Bandeiras, Daniel Schwarz, Pedro M.F. Sousa

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Modern drug discovery relies on combinatorial screening campaigns to find drug molecules targeting specific disease-associated proteins. The success of such campaigns often relies on functional and structural information of the selected therapeutic target, only achievable once its purification is mastered. With the aim of bypassing the protein purification process to gain insights on the druggability, ligand binding, and/or characterization of protein–protein interactions, herein, we describe the Extract2Chip method. This approach builds on the immobilization of site-specific biotinylated proteins of interest, directly from cellular extracts, on avidin-coated sensor chips to allow for the characterization of molecular interactions via surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The developed method was initially validated using Cyclophilin D (CypD) and subsequently applied to other drug discovery projects in which the targets of interest were difficult to express, purify, and crystallize. Extract2Chip was successfully applied to the characterization of Yes-associated protein (YAP): Transcriptional enhancer factor TEF (TEAD1) protein–protein interaction inhibitors, in the validation of a ternary complex assembly composed of Dyskerin pseudouridine synthase 1 (DKC1) and RuvBL1/RuvBL2, and in the establishment of a fast-screening platform to select the most suitable NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 2 (NUAK2) surrogate for binding and structural studies. The described method paves the way for a potential revival of the many drug discovery campaigns that have failed to deliver due to the lack of suitable and sufficient protein supply.

Original languageEnglish
Article number913
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • drug discovery
  • Extract2Chip
  • protein biotinylation
  • surface plasmon resonance


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