Anthocyanins are the basis of the color of angiosperms, 3‐deoxyanthocyanins and sphagnorubin play the same role in mosses and ferns, and auronidins are responsible for the color in liverworts. In this study, the color system of cyanidin‐3‐O‐glucoside (kuromanin) as a representative compound of simpler anthocyanins was fully characterized by stopped flow. This type of anthocyanin cannot confer significant color to plants without intra‐ or intermolecular interactions, complexation with metals or supramolecular structures as in Commelina communis. The anthocyanin’s color system was compared with those of 3‐deoxyanthocyanins and riccionidin A, the aglycone of auronidins. The three systems follow the same sequence of chemical reactions, but the respective thermodynamics and kinetics are dramatically different.
- Color of plants evolution