Evolution and financial cost of socioeconomic inequalities in ambulatory care sensitive conditions

an ecological study for Portugal, 2000-2014

Klára Dimitrovová, Cláudia Costa, Paula Santana, Julian Perelman

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Abstract

Background: Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) are specific conditions for which hospitalization is thought to be avoidable through patient education, health promotion initiatives, early diagnosis and by appropriate chronic disease management, and have been shown to be greatly influenced by socioeconomic (SE) characteristics. We examined the SE inequalities in hospitalization rates for ACSC in Portugal, their evolution over time (2000-2014), and their associated financial burden. Methods: We modeled municipality-level ACSC hospitalization rates per 1000 inhabitants and ACSC hospitalization-related costs per inhabitant, for the 2000-2014 period (n = 4170), as a function of SE indicators (illiteracy and purchasing power, in quintiles), controlling for the proportion of elderly, sex, disease specific mortality rate, population density, PC supply, and time trend. The evolution of inequalities was measured interacting SE indicators with a time trend. Costs attributable to ACSC related hospitalization inequalities were measured by the predicted values for each quintile of the SE indicators. Results: Hospitalization rate for ACSC was significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 1.97; p < 0.01), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 1.19; p < 0.05). ACSC hospitalization-related costs were also significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 4.04€; p < 0.05), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 4,69€; p < 0.01). The SE gradient significantly increased over the 2000-2014 period, and the annual cost of inequalities were estimated at more than 15 million euros for the Portuguese NHS. Conclusion: There was an increasing SE patterning in ACSC related hospitalizations, possibly reflecting increasing SE inequalities in early and preventive high-quality care, imposing a substantial financial burden to the Portuguese NHS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number145
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal for Equity in Health
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Aug 2017

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Portugal
Ambulatory Care
Hospitalization
Costs and Cost Analysis
Quality of Health Care
Patient Education
Disease Management
Population Density
Health Promotion
Early Diagnosis
Chronic Disease
Mortality

Keywords

  • Ambulatory care sensitive conditions
  • Costs
  • Primary care
  • Socioeconomic inequalities

Cite this

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title = "Evolution and financial cost of socioeconomic inequalities in ambulatory care sensitive conditions: an ecological study for Portugal, 2000-2014",
abstract = "Background: Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) are specific conditions for which hospitalization is thought to be avoidable through patient education, health promotion initiatives, early diagnosis and by appropriate chronic disease management, and have been shown to be greatly influenced by socioeconomic (SE) characteristics. We examined the SE inequalities in hospitalization rates for ACSC in Portugal, their evolution over time (2000-2014), and their associated financial burden. Methods: We modeled municipality-level ACSC hospitalization rates per 1000 inhabitants and ACSC hospitalization-related costs per inhabitant, for the 2000-2014 period (n = 4170), as a function of SE indicators (illiteracy and purchasing power, in quintiles), controlling for the proportion of elderly, sex, disease specific mortality rate, population density, PC supply, and time trend. The evolution of inequalities was measured interacting SE indicators with a time trend. Costs attributable to ACSC related hospitalization inequalities were measured by the predicted values for each quintile of the SE indicators. Results: Hospitalization rate for ACSC was significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 1.97; p < 0.01), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 1.19; p < 0.05). ACSC hospitalization-related costs were also significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 4.04€; p < 0.05), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 4,69€; p < 0.01). The SE gradient significantly increased over the 2000-2014 period, and the annual cost of inequalities were estimated at more than 15 million euros for the Portuguese NHS. Conclusion: There was an increasing SE patterning in ACSC related hospitalizations, possibly reflecting increasing SE inequalities in early and preventive high-quality care, imposing a substantial financial burden to the Portuguese NHS.",
keywords = "Ambulatory care sensitive conditions, Costs, Primary care, Socioeconomic inequalities",
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T1 - Evolution and financial cost of socioeconomic inequalities in ambulatory care sensitive conditions

T2 - an ecological study for Portugal, 2000-2014

AU - Dimitrovová, Klára

AU - Costa, Cláudia

AU - Santana, Paula

AU - Perelman, Julian

PY - 2017/8/16

Y1 - 2017/8/16

N2 - Background: Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) are specific conditions for which hospitalization is thought to be avoidable through patient education, health promotion initiatives, early diagnosis and by appropriate chronic disease management, and have been shown to be greatly influenced by socioeconomic (SE) characteristics. We examined the SE inequalities in hospitalization rates for ACSC in Portugal, their evolution over time (2000-2014), and their associated financial burden. Methods: We modeled municipality-level ACSC hospitalization rates per 1000 inhabitants and ACSC hospitalization-related costs per inhabitant, for the 2000-2014 period (n = 4170), as a function of SE indicators (illiteracy and purchasing power, in quintiles), controlling for the proportion of elderly, sex, disease specific mortality rate, population density, PC supply, and time trend. The evolution of inequalities was measured interacting SE indicators with a time trend. Costs attributable to ACSC related hospitalization inequalities were measured by the predicted values for each quintile of the SE indicators. Results: Hospitalization rate for ACSC was significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 1.97; p < 0.01), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 1.19; p < 0.05). ACSC hospitalization-related costs were also significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 4.04€; p < 0.05), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 4,69€; p < 0.01). The SE gradient significantly increased over the 2000-2014 period, and the annual cost of inequalities were estimated at more than 15 million euros for the Portuguese NHS. Conclusion: There was an increasing SE patterning in ACSC related hospitalizations, possibly reflecting increasing SE inequalities in early and preventive high-quality care, imposing a substantial financial burden to the Portuguese NHS.

AB - Background: Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) are specific conditions for which hospitalization is thought to be avoidable through patient education, health promotion initiatives, early diagnosis and by appropriate chronic disease management, and have been shown to be greatly influenced by socioeconomic (SE) characteristics. We examined the SE inequalities in hospitalization rates for ACSC in Portugal, their evolution over time (2000-2014), and their associated financial burden. Methods: We modeled municipality-level ACSC hospitalization rates per 1000 inhabitants and ACSC hospitalization-related costs per inhabitant, for the 2000-2014 period (n = 4170), as a function of SE indicators (illiteracy and purchasing power, in quintiles), controlling for the proportion of elderly, sex, disease specific mortality rate, population density, PC supply, and time trend. The evolution of inequalities was measured interacting SE indicators with a time trend. Costs attributable to ACSC related hospitalization inequalities were measured by the predicted values for each quintile of the SE indicators. Results: Hospitalization rate for ACSC was significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 1.97; p < 0.01), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 1.19; p < 0.05). ACSC hospitalization-related costs were also significantly higher in the 4th quintile of illiteracy compared with the 1st quintile (beta = 4.04€; p < 0.05), and significantly lower in the 5th quintile of purchasing power, compared with the 1st quintile (beta = - 4,69€; p < 0.01). The SE gradient significantly increased over the 2000-2014 period, and the annual cost of inequalities were estimated at more than 15 million euros for the Portuguese NHS. Conclusion: There was an increasing SE patterning in ACSC related hospitalizations, possibly reflecting increasing SE inequalities in early and preventive high-quality care, imposing a substantial financial burden to the Portuguese NHS.

KW - Ambulatory care sensitive conditions

KW - Costs

KW - Primary care

KW - Socioeconomic inequalities

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