Evaluation of the effect of fluorinated tooth bleaching products using polarized Raman microscopy and particle induced gamma-ray emission

Sofia Pessanha, Sara Silva, João Miguel Silveira, Iulian Otel, H. Luis, Vasco Manteigas, A. P. Jesus, António Mata, Micaela Fonseca

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In this in vitro study, the effect of the application of tooth bleaching products in human enamel was evaluated using polarized Raman microscopy, particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and Vickers Hardness test. Due to their acidic nature, teeth whitening products are associated with changes in enamel mineralization. Consequently, products have appeared in the market that promote the incorporation of fluorine in order to decrease the solubility of the hydroxyapatite in enamel and prevent demineralization. This way, four commercial products with different active principle concentrations: 16% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence PF® and VivaStyle®) or 6% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Go PF® and VivaStyle Paint On®) and presence or not of fluorine were compared. The information on the crystalline state of the enamel was provided by the determination of the depolarization ratio of the symmetric stretching band of phosphate (at 959 cm−1). Furthermore, the content and uptake of F was evaluated using PIGE in the two fluorinated products as well as in one negative control group. In order to evaluate the microhardness of enamel by means of Vickers test, another group of polished samples was prepared (using Opalescence PF®) and evaluated. Conversely to what could be expected, the obtained results determined a statistically significant decrease of depolarization ratio, leading to an increase of mineralization after the application of the bleaching products, except for VivaStyle®. For this group, no significant variation was obtained before-after treatment, most likely due to the acidity of the product (pH = 5.8). Additionally, an increase of concentration of F in the dental tissues was determined for the fluorinated products. On the other hand, enamel polishing, required for the application of the Vickers test, led to increased susceptibility to erosion, resulting in decreased hardness and an increased enamel depolarization ratio.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118378
JournalSpectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2020
Event41st International Colloquium on Spectroscopicum (CSI) / 1st Latin American Meeting on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LAMLIBS) - Mexico City, Mexico
Duration: 9 Jun 201914 Jun 2019


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of the effect of fluorinated tooth bleaching products using polarized Raman microscopy and particle induced gamma-ray emission'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this