Evaluation of Sweat-Sampling Procedures for Human Stress-Biomarker Detection

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Sweat is a potential biological fluid for the non-invasive analytical assessment of diverse molecules, including biomarkers. Not with standing, the sampling methodology is critical, and it must be assessed prior to using sweat for clinical diagnosis. In the current work, the analytical methodology was further developed taking into account the sampling step, in view of the identification and level variations of sweat components that have potential to be stress biomarkers using separation by liquid chromatography and detection by tandem mass spectrometry, in order to attain a screening profile of 26 molecules in just one stage. As such, the molecule identification was used as a test for the evaluation of the sampling procedures, including the location on the body, using patches for long-term sampling and vials for direct sampling, through a qualitative approach. From this evaluation it was possible to conclude that the sampling may be performed on the chest or back skin. Additionally, possible interference was evaluated. The long-term sampling with patches can be used under both rest and exercise conditions with variation of the detected molecule’s levels. The direct sampling, using vials, has the advantage of not having interferences but the disadvantage of only being effective after exercise in order to have enough sample for sweat analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)178-194
Number of pages17
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2022


  • LC-MS/MS
  • stress
  • biomarkers
  • sampling
  • sweat
  • blood analysis


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