Evaluation of Design, Metallurgy, Microhardness, and Mechanical Properties of Glide Path Instruments: A Multimethod Approach

Jorge N. R. Martins, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal Silva, Duarte Marques, Mário Rito Pereira, Sofia Arantes-Oliveira, Rui F. Martins, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, Marco Aurélio Versiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: This study aims to compare the design, metallurgy, microhardness, and mechanical properties of 3 glide path nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments. Methods: A total of 132 ProGlider (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Edge Glide Path (EdgeEndo, Johnson City, TN), and R-Pilot instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany) (44 per group) were selected. Design was assessed through stereomicroscopy (blades, helical angle, measuring lines, and deformation) and scanning electron microscopy (symmetry, cross section, tip, and surface finishing). NiTi ratios were measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and phase transformation temperatures by differential scanning calorimetry. Microhardness and mechanical performance (torsion, bending, and buckling resistance tests) were also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed with the Mood median test with a significance set at 5%. Results: The Edge Glide Path had the lowest number of blades and the R-Pilot the greatest helical angle. All instruments had an almost equiatomic NiTi ratio, while showing different cross sections and tip geometries. The Edge Glide Path had a smoother surface finishing. The R-Pilot showed martensitic characteristics at room temperature, whereas mixed austenite plus R-phase was observed in the other instruments. The R-Pilot had higher results on the microhardness (436.8 hardness Vickers number), maximum torsion (0.9 Ncm), and buckling load (0.7 N) tests (P < .05), whereas the Edge Glide Path had a superior angle of rotation (683.5°) and the ProGlider was more flexible (144.1 gf) (P < .05). Conclusions: Differences in the design of the instruments and the phase transformation temperatures accounted for their mechanical behavior. The R-Pilot showed the highest torque, buckling, and microhardness, whereas the ProGlider instrument was the most flexible.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 16 Sep 2021


  • Bending load
  • differential scanning calorimetry
  • endodontics
  • energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
  • glide path
  • torsional strength


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