Eupsychia revisited: the role of spiritual leaders

Armnio Rego, Miguel Pina e Cunha, Miguel Oliveira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


This study builds on the workplace spirituality and spiritual leadership literatures to revisit the Maslowian notion of eupsychian management, showing that leaders' behavior has an impact on how people perceive the organization at the higher levels of self-actualization: the spiritual ones. A total of 105 employees reported 175 critical incidents, 120 antieupsychian events, and 55 eupsychian ones. The most frequent antieupsychian behaviors were power abuse and bossiness, ruthlessness or unkindness, disrespect for personal and inner life of employees, and laziness and cowardice. The more frequent reactions to those behaviors were expressing protest and/or disapproval against leader behavior, negative emotions and feelings, neglect and passivity, retaliation or disobedience, and performance decrease. The most cited eupsychian behaviors were the promotion of self-determination, employee personal development, and respect for the personal and inner life of employees. The most frequent reactions to these behaviors were higher levels of psychological well-being, higher commitment, and stronger sense of calling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-195
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Humanistic Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008


  • Eupsychian management
  • Performance
  • Psychological well-being
  • Spiritual leadership
  • Workplace spirituality


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