Esterification of fatty acids to biodiesel over polymers with sulfonic acid groups

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Abstract

The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied using poly(vinyl alcohol) cross-linked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene with sulfonic acid groups, as catalysts,at 60 degrees C. It was observed that the PVA matrixes with sulfonic acid groups were more active than the polystyrene ones. With the most active polymeric matrix (PVA_SSA40), an almost 90% equilibrium conversion was achieved after 2 h. Further, the optimisation of reaction parameters, such as, catalyst loading, molar ratio alcohol to fatty acid and type of alcohol was carried out with PVA_SSA40 catalyst. Catalytic stability of the PVA_SSA40 was evaluated by performing consecutive batch runs with the same catalyst sample. After the second batch, a stabilisation of the catalytic activity was observed. The PVA_SSA40 was also used as catalyst in the esterification of oleic and stearic acid with methanol, having been obtained an equilibrium conversion of almost 80%. In order to become the biodiesel totally biogenerated, the esterification of palmitic acid was carried out with ethanol, at 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C. It was observed that the reaction rate is slower when the reaction is carried out with methanol, at 60 degrees C. In a posterior catalytic experiment at 60 degrees C, PVA_SSA40 showed catalytic activity to obtain biodiesel from animal fats (lard), in the presence of methanol. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)41-46
JournalApplied Catalysis A-General
Volume359
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009

Cite this

@article{7006d08aec3c4b5387bbc4b5e232e86c,
title = "Esterification of fatty acids to biodiesel over polymers with sulfonic acid groups",
abstract = "The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied using poly(vinyl alcohol) cross-linked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene with sulfonic acid groups, as catalysts,at 60 degrees C. It was observed that the PVA matrixes with sulfonic acid groups were more active than the polystyrene ones. With the most active polymeric matrix (PVA_SSA40), an almost 90{\%} equilibrium conversion was achieved after 2 h. Further, the optimisation of reaction parameters, such as, catalyst loading, molar ratio alcohol to fatty acid and type of alcohol was carried out with PVA_SSA40 catalyst. Catalytic stability of the PVA_SSA40 was evaluated by performing consecutive batch runs with the same catalyst sample. After the second batch, a stabilisation of the catalytic activity was observed. The PVA_SSA40 was also used as catalyst in the esterification of oleic and stearic acid with methanol, having been obtained an equilibrium conversion of almost 80{\%}. In order to become the biodiesel totally biogenerated, the esterification of palmitic acid was carried out with ethanol, at 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C. It was observed that the reaction rate is slower when the reaction is carried out with methanol, at 60 degrees C. In a posterior catalytic experiment at 60 degrees C, PVA_SSA40 showed catalytic activity to obtain biodiesel from animal fats (lard), in the presence of methanol. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "soybean, Sulfonic, poly(vinyl, PS, solid, acetic-acid, groups, Biodiesel, Free, ion-exchange-resins, heterogeneous, Esterification, acid, membranes, zeolite, acids, oil, alcohol), fatty, catalyst, transesterification, PVA, base",
author = "Fonseca, {Isabel Maria de Figueiredo Ligeiro da} and Vital, {Joaquim Silv{\'e}rio Marques} and Ramos, {Ana Maria Martelo}",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "Unknown",
volume = "359",
pages = "41--46",
journal = "Applied Catalysis A-General",
issn = "0926-860X",
publisher = "Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Esterification of fatty acids to biodiesel over polymers with sulfonic acid groups

AU - Fonseca, Isabel Maria de Figueiredo Ligeiro da

AU - Vital, Joaquim Silvério Marques

AU - Ramos, Ana Maria Martelo

PY - 2009/1/1

Y1 - 2009/1/1

N2 - The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied using poly(vinyl alcohol) cross-linked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene with sulfonic acid groups, as catalysts,at 60 degrees C. It was observed that the PVA matrixes with sulfonic acid groups were more active than the polystyrene ones. With the most active polymeric matrix (PVA_SSA40), an almost 90% equilibrium conversion was achieved after 2 h. Further, the optimisation of reaction parameters, such as, catalyst loading, molar ratio alcohol to fatty acid and type of alcohol was carried out with PVA_SSA40 catalyst. Catalytic stability of the PVA_SSA40 was evaluated by performing consecutive batch runs with the same catalyst sample. After the second batch, a stabilisation of the catalytic activity was observed. The PVA_SSA40 was also used as catalyst in the esterification of oleic and stearic acid with methanol, having been obtained an equilibrium conversion of almost 80%. In order to become the biodiesel totally biogenerated, the esterification of palmitic acid was carried out with ethanol, at 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C. It was observed that the reaction rate is slower when the reaction is carried out with methanol, at 60 degrees C. In a posterior catalytic experiment at 60 degrees C, PVA_SSA40 showed catalytic activity to obtain biodiesel from animal fats (lard), in the presence of methanol. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied using poly(vinyl alcohol) cross-linked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene with sulfonic acid groups, as catalysts,at 60 degrees C. It was observed that the PVA matrixes with sulfonic acid groups were more active than the polystyrene ones. With the most active polymeric matrix (PVA_SSA40), an almost 90% equilibrium conversion was achieved after 2 h. Further, the optimisation of reaction parameters, such as, catalyst loading, molar ratio alcohol to fatty acid and type of alcohol was carried out with PVA_SSA40 catalyst. Catalytic stability of the PVA_SSA40 was evaluated by performing consecutive batch runs with the same catalyst sample. After the second batch, a stabilisation of the catalytic activity was observed. The PVA_SSA40 was also used as catalyst in the esterification of oleic and stearic acid with methanol, having been obtained an equilibrium conversion of almost 80%. In order to become the biodiesel totally biogenerated, the esterification of palmitic acid was carried out with ethanol, at 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C. It was observed that the reaction rate is slower when the reaction is carried out with methanol, at 60 degrees C. In a posterior catalytic experiment at 60 degrees C, PVA_SSA40 showed catalytic activity to obtain biodiesel from animal fats (lard), in the presence of methanol. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - soybean

KW - Sulfonic

KW - poly(vinyl

KW - PS

KW - solid

KW - acetic-acid

KW - groups

KW - Biodiesel

KW - Free

KW - ion-exchange-resins

KW - heterogeneous

KW - Esterification

KW - acid

KW - membranes

KW - zeolite

KW - acids

KW - oil

KW - alcohol)

KW - fatty

KW - catalyst

KW - transesterification

KW - PVA

KW - base

M3 - Article

VL - 359

SP - 41

EP - 46

JO - Applied Catalysis A-General

JF - Applied Catalysis A-General

SN - 0926-860X

IS - 1-2

ER -