Essential Trace Elements Status in Portuguese Pregnant Women and Their Association with Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes: A Prospective Study from the IoMum Cohort

Isabella Bracchi, Juliana Guimarães, Catarina Rodrigues, Rui Azevedo, Cláudia Matta Coelho, Cátia Pinheiro, Juliana Morais, Inês Barreiros-Mota, Virgínia Cruz Fernandes, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Edgar Pinto, André Moreira-Rosário, Luís Filipe Ribeiro de Azevedo, Cláudia Camila Dias, Jorge Lima, Inês Sapinho, Carla Ramalho, Conceição Calhau, João Costa Leite, Agostinho AlmeidaDiogo Pestana, Elisa Keating

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Abstract

Cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) are essential trace elements (ETEs) and important cofactors for intermediary metabolism or redox balance. These ETEs are crucial during pregnancy, their role on specific pregnancy outcomes is largely unknown. This prospective study (#NCT04010708) aimed to assess urinary levels of these ETEs in pregnancy and to evaluate their association with pregnancy outcomes. First trimester pregnant women of Porto and Lisbon provided a random spot urine sample, and sociodemographic and lifestyle data. Clinical data were obtained from clinical records. Urinary ETEs were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A total of 635 mother:child pairs were included. Having urinary Zn levels above the 50th percentile (P50) was an independent risk factor for pre-eclampsia (PE) (aOR [95% CI]: 5.350 [1.044-27.423], p = 0.044). Urinary Zn levels above the P50 decreased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth head circumference (aOR [95% CI]: 0.315 [0.113-0.883], p = 0.028), but it increased the risk SGA length (aOR [95% CI]: 2.531 [1.057-6.062], p = 0.037). This study may provide valuable information for public health policies related to prenatal nutrition, while informing future efforts to de-fine urinary reference intervals for ETEs in pregnant women.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBiology
Volume12
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2023

Keywords

  • essential trace elements
  • neonatal anthropometry
  • neonatal outcomes
  • pre-eclampsia
  • pregnancy
  • pregnancy complications

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