Formal consideration of the interactions between people and their working environments can be found in writings from ancient Greece, in medieval medical accounts, and in records from Poland and Germany more than a century ago (e.g., Girault 1998; Jastrzebowski 1857a-d; Marmaras et al. 1999). The modern history of ergonomics emerges in World War II, in the early 1940s. In the United Kingdom, the ideas and expertise from different disciplines gained interest in the effectiveness of human performance (anatomy, physiology, psychology, industrial medicine, industrial hygiene, design engineering, architecture, and illumination engineering), and an emphasis on theory and methodology led to the birth of the discipline of ergonomics with two strong subgroupings: those of anatomy/physiology and experimental psychology (Wilson 2000). In parallel, the human factors profession was growing up in the United States, with strong inputs from the disciplines of psychology and engineering. In Germany, the Netherlands, and across Scandinavia, a basis for ergonomics was growing out of occupational medicine and functional anatomy, while in Eastern Europe, the growth was largely from the industrial engineering profession (Singleton 1982).