21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Children attending day care centers (CDCC) have been reported to be more prone to infectious diseases when compared with those cared for at home, and are exposed to conditions that may increase the risk of allergies and asthma. Several studies revealed that consequences of poor ventilation conditions include high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and many other indoor pollutants commonly detected in schools. Nine child day care centers were selected randomly to participate in this study. Fifty-two classrooms were assessed for chemical, biological, physical, and allergen parameters in spring and winter seasons in these nine CDCC located in Porto, Portugal. Outdoor measurements were also conducted for comparison. Our results indicated that (i) particulate matter (PM10) median levels were above the national reference levels, both by classroom type and by season; (ii) TVOC kindergarten peak values may raise some concern; (iii) CO2 was present at high median and maximum levels during spring and winter assessment in both nurseries and kindergartens classrooms; (iv) total bacteria concentrations were 57- and 52-fold higher in the nursery and kindergarten than outdoors, respectively, for the spring season; (v) winter and spring median predicted mean vote (PMV) indices were between "neutral" (0) and "slightly cool" (≤ -1) in the thermal sensation scale for comfort situations (-2 to 2) for both types of classrooms; (vi) there were significant differences for both PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) indices by season; and (vii) CO 2, total bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria were associated with low airflow rates. These data will help to evaluate the effectiveness of current building operation practices in child day care centers regarding indoor air quality and respiratory health. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)931-943
Number of pages13
JournalJournal Of Toxicology And Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues
Volume77
Issue number14-16, SI
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • allergen
  • carbon dioxide
  • carbon monoxide
  • formaldehyde, air quality
  • air quality control
  • air temperature
  • airflow
  • ambient air
  • article
  • bacterium
  • building
  • child
  • comfort
  • day care
  • Dermatophagoides
  • environmental monitoring
  • Gram negative bacterium
  • human
  • indoor air pollution
  • infection
  • kindergarten
  • major clinical study
  • nonhuman
  • nursery
  • particulate matter
  • priority journal
  • room ventilation
  • sensation
  • spring
  • surgery
  • winter, Air Microbiology
  • Air Pollutants
  • Air Pollution, Indoor
  • Allergens
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Child Day Care Centers
  • Child, Preschool
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Humans
  • Particulate Matter
  • Portugal
  • Seasons
  • Ventilation

Cite this

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title = "Environmental and ventilation assessment in child day care centers in Porto: The envirh project",
abstract = "Children attending day care centers (CDCC) have been reported to be more prone to infectious diseases when compared with those cared for at home, and are exposed to conditions that may increase the risk of allergies and asthma. Several studies revealed that consequences of poor ventilation conditions include high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and many other indoor pollutants commonly detected in schools. Nine child day care centers were selected randomly to participate in this study. Fifty-two classrooms were assessed for chemical, biological, physical, and allergen parameters in spring and winter seasons in these nine CDCC located in Porto, Portugal. Outdoor measurements were also conducted for comparison. Our results indicated that (i) particulate matter (PM10) median levels were above the national reference levels, both by classroom type and by season; (ii) TVOC kindergarten peak values may raise some concern; (iii) CO2 was present at high median and maximum levels during spring and winter assessment in both nurseries and kindergartens classrooms; (iv) total bacteria concentrations were 57- and 52-fold higher in the nursery and kindergarten than outdoors, respectively, for the spring season; (v) winter and spring median predicted mean vote (PMV) indices were between {"}neutral{"} (0) and {"}slightly cool{"} (≤ -1) in the thermal sensation scale for comfort situations (-2 to 2) for both types of classrooms; (vi) there were significant differences for both PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) indices by season; and (vii) CO 2, total bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria were associated with low airflow rates. These data will help to evaluate the effectiveness of current building operation practices in child day care centers regarding indoor air quality and respiratory health. Copyright {\circledC} 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.",
keywords = "allergen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, air quality, air quality control, air temperature, airflow, ambient air, article, bacterium, building, child, comfort, day care, Dermatophagoides, environmental monitoring, Gram negative bacterium, human, indoor air pollution, infection, kindergarten, major clinical study, nonhuman, nursery, particulate matter, priority journal, room ventilation, sensation, spring, surgery, winter, Air Microbiology, Air Pollutants, Air Pollution, Indoor, Allergens, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Child Day Care Centers, Child, Preschool, Environmental Monitoring, Humans, Particulate Matter, Portugal, Seasons, Ventilation",
author = "Silva, {Ana Luisa Trigoso Papoila da} and Martins, {Pedro Miguel Carvalho Diogo Carreiro} and Neuparth, {Nuno Manuel Barreiros} and Daniel Aelenei",
note = "PMID:25072725 WOS:000340278000015",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1080/15287394.2014.911134",
language = "Unknown",
volume = "77",
pages = "931--943",
journal = "Journal Of Toxicology And Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues",
issn = "1528-7394",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Inc.",
number = "14-16, SI",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental and ventilation assessment in child day care centers in Porto: The envirh project

AU - Silva, Ana Luisa Trigoso Papoila da

AU - Martins, Pedro Miguel Carvalho Diogo Carreiro

AU - Neuparth, Nuno Manuel Barreiros

AU - Aelenei, Daniel

N1 - PMID:25072725 WOS:000340278000015

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Children attending day care centers (CDCC) have been reported to be more prone to infectious diseases when compared with those cared for at home, and are exposed to conditions that may increase the risk of allergies and asthma. Several studies revealed that consequences of poor ventilation conditions include high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and many other indoor pollutants commonly detected in schools. Nine child day care centers were selected randomly to participate in this study. Fifty-two classrooms were assessed for chemical, biological, physical, and allergen parameters in spring and winter seasons in these nine CDCC located in Porto, Portugal. Outdoor measurements were also conducted for comparison. Our results indicated that (i) particulate matter (PM10) median levels were above the national reference levels, both by classroom type and by season; (ii) TVOC kindergarten peak values may raise some concern; (iii) CO2 was present at high median and maximum levels during spring and winter assessment in both nurseries and kindergartens classrooms; (iv) total bacteria concentrations were 57- and 52-fold higher in the nursery and kindergarten than outdoors, respectively, for the spring season; (v) winter and spring median predicted mean vote (PMV) indices were between "neutral" (0) and "slightly cool" (≤ -1) in the thermal sensation scale for comfort situations (-2 to 2) for both types of classrooms; (vi) there were significant differences for both PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) indices by season; and (vii) CO 2, total bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria were associated with low airflow rates. These data will help to evaluate the effectiveness of current building operation practices in child day care centers regarding indoor air quality and respiratory health. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

AB - Children attending day care centers (CDCC) have been reported to be more prone to infectious diseases when compared with those cared for at home, and are exposed to conditions that may increase the risk of allergies and asthma. Several studies revealed that consequences of poor ventilation conditions include high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and many other indoor pollutants commonly detected in schools. Nine child day care centers were selected randomly to participate in this study. Fifty-two classrooms were assessed for chemical, biological, physical, and allergen parameters in spring and winter seasons in these nine CDCC located in Porto, Portugal. Outdoor measurements were also conducted for comparison. Our results indicated that (i) particulate matter (PM10) median levels were above the national reference levels, both by classroom type and by season; (ii) TVOC kindergarten peak values may raise some concern; (iii) CO2 was present at high median and maximum levels during spring and winter assessment in both nurseries and kindergartens classrooms; (iv) total bacteria concentrations were 57- and 52-fold higher in the nursery and kindergarten than outdoors, respectively, for the spring season; (v) winter and spring median predicted mean vote (PMV) indices were between "neutral" (0) and "slightly cool" (≤ -1) in the thermal sensation scale for comfort situations (-2 to 2) for both types of classrooms; (vi) there were significant differences for both PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) indices by season; and (vii) CO 2, total bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria were associated with low airflow rates. These data will help to evaluate the effectiveness of current building operation practices in child day care centers regarding indoor air quality and respiratory health. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

KW - allergen

KW - carbon dioxide

KW - carbon monoxide

KW - formaldehyde, air quality

KW - air quality control

KW - air temperature

KW - airflow

KW - ambient air

KW - article

KW - bacterium

KW - building

KW - child

KW - comfort

KW - day care

KW - Dermatophagoides

KW - environmental monitoring

KW - Gram negative bacterium

KW - human

KW - indoor air pollution

KW - infection

KW - kindergarten

KW - major clinical study

KW - nonhuman

KW - nursery

KW - particulate matter

KW - priority journal

KW - room ventilation

KW - sensation

KW - spring

KW - surgery

KW - winter, Air Microbiology

KW - Air Pollutants

KW - Air Pollution, Indoor

KW - Allergens

KW - Carbon Dioxide

KW - Carbon Monoxide

KW - Child Day Care Centers

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Environmental Monitoring

KW - Humans

KW - Particulate Matter

KW - Portugal

KW - Seasons

KW - Ventilation

U2 - 10.1080/15287394.2014.911134

DO - 10.1080/15287394.2014.911134

M3 - Article

VL - 77

SP - 931

EP - 943

JO - Journal Of Toxicology And Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues

JF - Journal Of Toxicology And Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues

SN - 1528-7394

IS - 14-16, SI

ER -