Entrectinib in the neoadjuvant setting of anaplastic thyroid cancer: a case report

Inês Damásio, Joana Simões-Pereira, Sara Donato, Mariana Horta, Branca Maria Cavaco, Miguel Rito, Pedro Gomes, Valeriano Leite

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5 Citations (Scopus)
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BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors. ATC is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages with unresectable disease and palliative care is often indicated. Recently, several patient-tailored therapies for ATC are emerging due to advances in molecular profiling of these tumors. Entrectinib is a potent oral selective inhibitor of neutrotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase (NTRK), ROS1, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions. The experience regarding ATC and other thyroid carcinomas, particularly in the neoadjuvant setting, is minimal.

CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 51-year-old female patient presenting with a bulky mass of the left thyroid lobe measuring 100 × 108 × 80 mm that was considered surgically unresectable. While waiting for next-generation sequence (NGS) profiling, lenvatinib was initiated. There was an initial clinical and imagiologic response; however, progression occurred after 12 weeks, and at this time NGS identified an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion and entrectinib was started. After 12 weeks, tumor diameters reduced to a minimum of 68×60×49 mm, and the patient underwent total thyroidectomy plus central lymphadenectomy. Histological diagnosis confirmed an ATC (pT4a R2 N1a). Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) (60 Grays) with weekly paclitaxel (45 mg/m2) was then administered followed by maintenance entrectinib 600 mg daily. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography performed 3 months after completion of RT showed only non-specific uptake in the posterior wall of the hypopharynx and larynx, suggestive of inflammation.

CONCLUSION: We report the first case of an ATC with a dramatic response to neoadjuvant therapy with entrectinib, which enabled surgical resection of an ab initio unresectable tumor.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Thyroid Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


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