Grapes and wine are widely consumed in the world, yet their mineral content can be influenced by many factors such as the mineral composition of soils, viticulture practices and environmental conditions. In this context, considering the importance of Zn in the human physiology, the enrichment of Moscatel and Castelão grapes (white and red variety, respectively) with this nutrient prompted this study; further assessment of tissue deposition and some implications for wine production. Using two foliar fertilizers (ZnO or ZnSO4, at 150, 450 and 900 g ha−1), decreases in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance occurred in both varieties, suggesting that the physiological threshold of Zn toxicity was reached without visible symptoms. Following foliar spraying with both fertilizers, the content of Zn in leaves of the Castelão and Moscatel varieties showed higher values in all treatments relative to the control. Moreover, in grapes this tendency occurred only in Castelão. Concerning Cu, Fe, Ca, K, S and P, some significant differences also happened in leaves and grapes among treatments. At harvest, the indexes of Zn enrichment in grapes increased between 2.14-and 8.38-fold and between 1.02-and 1.44-fold in Castelão and Moscatel varieties, respectively. Zinc in the dried skin of Castelão only increased with ZnO and ZnSO4 sprayed at 900 g ha−1 (ca. 2.71-and 1.5-fold relative to the control, respectively), but in Moscatel a clear accumulation trend could not be found. The dry weight of grapes ranged (in %) between 16 and 23 (but did not vary significantly among treatments of each variety or in each treatment between varieties), and total soluble solids (e.g., mainly soluble sugars and proteins) and color parameters showed some significant variations. Through winemaking, the contents of Zn increased in both varieties (1.34-and 3.57-fold, in Castelão and Moscatel, respectively) and in all treatments, although non-significantly in Castelão. It is concluded that, to increase the contents of Zn in grapes without reaching the threshold of toxicity, ZnO or ZnSO4 can be used for foliar spraying of Castelão and Moscatel varieties until 900 g ha −1 And that winemaking augments the level of this nutrient.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1399
Number of pages21
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2022


  • agronomic enrichment with zinc
  • Castelão
  • Moscatel
  • Vitis vinifera


Dive into the research topics of 'Enrichment of Grapes with Zinc-Efficiency of Foliar Fertilization with ZnSO4 and ZnO and Implications on Winemaking'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this