Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common oncological disease in Western men. Even though a significant effort has been carried out by the scientific community, accurate and reliable automated PCa detection methods are still a compelling issue. In this clinical scenario, high-resolution multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is becoming the most used modality, also enabling quantitative studies. Recently, deep learning techniques have achieved outstanding results in prostate MRI analysis tasks, in particular with regard to image classification. This paper studies the feasibility of using the Semantic Learning Machine (SLM) neuroevolution algorithm to replace the fully-connected architecture commonly used in the last layers of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The experimental phase considered the PROSTATEx dataset composed of multispectral MRI sequences. The achieved results show that, on the same non-contrast-enhanced MRI series, SLM outperforms with statistical significance a state-of-the-art CNN trained with backpropagation. The SLM performance is achieved without pre-training the underlying CNN with backpropagation. Furthermore, on average the SLM training time is approximately 14 times faster than the backpropagation-based approach.