Enhanced transport and transformation of zerovalent nanoiron in clay using direct electric current

Helena I. Gomes, Célia Dias-Ferreira, Alexandra B. Ribeiro, Sibel Pamukcu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


One of the major obstacles to zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) application in soil and groundwater remediation is the limited transport, especially in low-permeability soils. In this study, direct current (constant potential of 5.0 V) was used to enhance polymer-coated nZVI mobility in different porous media, including a bed of glass beads and kaolin clay. The tests were conducted using a modified electrophoretic cell and with nZVI concentrations typical of field applications (4 g L-1). Experimental results indicate that the use of direct current can enhance the transport of the polymer-modified nanoparticles when compared with natural diffusion in low permeability or surface neutral porous medium. The applied electric field appeared to enhance the oxidation-reduction potential, creating a synergistic effect of nZVI usage with electrokinetics. Aggregation of the nanoparticles, observed near the injection point, remained unresolved.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1710
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013


  • Direct current
  • Electrochemical treatment
  • Electrokinetics
  • Enhanced transport
  • Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI)


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