En face Ultrawidefield OCT of the Vortex Vein System in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

Prithvi Ramtohul, Diogo Cabral, Daniel Oh, Daniel Galhoz, K. Bailey Freund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To investigate whether noninvasive en face ultrawidefield (UWF) OCT can demonstrate salient features of the choroidal vasculature in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Design: Retrospective observational case series. Participants: Patients diagnosed with CSC who underwent UWF indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and widefield OCT imaging were included. Methods: Widefield OCT imaging was performed with a horizontal 23- × vertical 20-mm field of view of 5 visual fixations (1 central and 4 peripheral fixations) to compose structural en face UWF OCT montage images and UWF choroidal thickness maps. Automated image alignment was performed before grading. Main Outcome Measures: A comparison of choroidal vascular findings seen with UWF ICGA and en face UWF OCT images, including size and distribution of choroidal venous drainage areas and identification of dilated choroidal veins (pachyvessels) crossing the physiologic choroidal watershed zones. The spatial correlation between choroidal vascular hyperpermeability on UWF ICGA images and areas of choroidal thickening on UWF choroidal thickness maps was determined. Results: Forty-two eyes from 27 patients with CSC with a mean age of 56 ± 12 years (range, 31–77 years) were included. Quantitative measures of vortex vein drainage areas on en face UWF OCT images were significantly and positively correlated with those obtained with UWF ICGA (mean Pearson r = 0.825, P < 0.01). Identification of pachyvessels crossing the choroidal watershed zones showed an excellent correlation between UWF ICGA and en face UWF OCT images (mean Spearman ρ = 0.873, P < 0.01). In all cases, choroidal vascular hyperpermeability was observed on UWF ICGA spatially colocalized with areas of choroidal thickening on the UWF choroidal thickness map. Congestion within the entire drainage area of the dominant vortex systems was observed on UWF choroidal thickness maps. Conclusions: In eyes with CSC, noninvasive en face UWF OCT imaging can show distinctive features of choroidal venous insufficiency previously identified with UWF ICGA. Ultrawidefield OCT choroidal thickness maps enable quantitative assessment of choroidal congestion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)346-353
JournalOphthalmology Retina
Issue number4
Early online dateOct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Central serous chorioretinopathy
  • Choroidal venous insufficiency
  • En face OCT
  • Indocyanine green angiography
  • OCT
  • Ultrawidefield imaging
  • Vortex vein


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