Plasmodium cysteine proteases have been shown to be immunogenic and are being used as malaria potential serodiagnostic markers and vaccine targets. Genes encoding two Plasmodium chabaudi cysteine proteases chabaupain-1 (CP-1) and chabaupain-2 (CP-2) were identified and further expressed in Escherichia coli. Solubilisation of recombinant CP-1 and CP-2 was achieved by decreasing the temperature of induction. Anopheles gambiae tissues infected with Plasmodium were analyzed by Western blotting using the anti-CP-1 antibody showing that CP-1 is only present in the A. gambiae midguts being absent from other infected mosquito biological material. Anti-CP-1 anti-serum recognized a 30 kDa band in P. chabaudi, Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii lysates but does not recognize the recombinant CP-2 extracts suggesting high antibody specificity. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.