Electromechanical actuators based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) with [N1 1 1 2(OH)][NTf2] and [C2mim] [C2SO4]

J. C. Dias, M. S. Martins, S. Ribeiro, M. M. Silva, J. M S S Esperança, C. Ribeiro, G. Botelho, C. M. Costa, S. Lanceros-Mendez

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40 Citations (Scopus)


Actuators based on electroactive polymers are increasingly used in applications including microelectronic devices and artificial muscles, demanding low voltage operation and controllable switching response. This work reports on the preparation of electroactive actuators based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composites with 10, 25, and 40 wt% N,N,N-trimethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([N1 1 1 2(OH)][NTf2]) and 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate ([C2mim][C2SO4]) ionic liquids (ILs) prepared by solvent casting. Independent of the IL type, its presence leads to the crystallization of PVDF in the piezoelectric β-phase. The degree of crystallinity and electrical conductivity of the samples strongly depends on ILs type and content. The highest electrical conductivity was found for PVDF/IL composites with 40 wt% of [N1 1 1 2(OH)][NTf2]. The strain displacement and bending of the PVDF/IL composites were evaluated as a function of IL type and content under applied peak voltages of 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 V at a frequency of 10 mHz. Strain displacement of the actuators depends more on IL content than on IL type, and the best strain bending response was found for the PVDF/IL composite with 25 wt% of [N1 1 1 2(OH)][NTf2] at 5.0 V. Further, it is shown that [C2mim] [C2SO4]/PVDF composites do not show cytotoxic behavior, being suitable for biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9490-9503
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016


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