Electrochromic Device Composed of a Di-Urethanesil Electrolyte Incorporating Lithium Triflate and 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Maria Cristina Gonçalves, Rui F. P. Pereira, Raquel Alves, Sílvia C. Nunes, Mariana Fernandes, Helena M. R. Gonçalves, Sónia Pereira, M. Manuela Silva, Elvira Fortunato, Rosa Rego, Verónica de Zea Bermudez

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3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A di-urethane cross-linked poly(oxyethylene)/silica hybrid matrix [di-urethanesil, d-Ut(600)], synthesized by the sol-gel process, was doped with lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) and the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) ionic liquid. The as-produced xerogel film is amorphous, transparent, flexible, homogeneous, hydrophilic, and has low nanoscale surface roughness. It exhibits an ionic conductivity of 3.64 × 10–6 and 5.00 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 21 and 100°C, respectively. This material was successfully tested as electrolyte in an electrochromic device (ECD) with the glass/ITO/a-WO3/d-Ut(600)10LiCF3SO3[Bmim]Cl/c-NiO/ITO/glass configuration, where a-WO3 and c-NiO stand for amorphous tungsten oxide and crystalline nickel oxide, respectively. The device demonstrated attractive electro-optical performance: fast response times (1–2 s for coloring and 50 s for bleaching), good optical memory [loss of transmittance (T) of only 41% after 3 months, at 555 nm], four mode modulation [bright mode (+3.0 V, T = 77% at 555 nm), semi-bright mode (−1.0 V, T = 60% at 555 nm), dark mode (−1.5 V, T = 38 % at 555 nm), and very dark mode (−2.0 V, T = 11% and −2.5 V, T = 7% at 555 nm)], excellent cycling stability denoting improvement with time, and high coloration efficiency [CEin = −6727 cm2 C–1 (32th cycle) and CEout = +2794 cm2 C–1 (480th cycle), at 555 nm].

Original languageEnglish
Article number139
JournalFrontiers in Materials
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2020

Keywords

  • 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride
  • di-urethanesil
  • electrochromic device
  • lithium triflate
  • sol-gel

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