Electro-technologies for the removal of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole from naturally contaminated cork discs: reactor design and proof of concept

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Abstract

The electrochemical (EC) process for the removal of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) from cork discs was investigated for the first time. For process development, six different EC reactors (based on a 3-compartment set-up) and four process variables were tested. Independently of the reactor design used, the application of a low level direct current for 8 h (10 mA, 0.16 mA/cm2) had a positive effect on TCA removal. The best option is to place the cork discs in a middle compartment separated from the cathode compartment by the use of a passive membrane, and from the anode compartment by a cation exchange membrane. In this reactor design, the TCA levels in 78% of the cork discs decreased to values below limit of detection (0.49 ng/L; TCA initial concentration between 0.5 and 2 ng/L). By immersing the discs’ in a saline solution for 24 h prior current application, the TCA removal was improved by 10–15%. When the 34 cork discs contaminated with 2.5 times-fold more TCA were subjected to EC after 24 h immersion in the saline solution, the percentage of discs in which TCA concentration was below 0.49 ng/L decreased to 41%. Still, and considering that TCA perception threshold in wines starts at 1.5 ng/L, 85% of the cork discs exposed to EC reatment presented TCA levels below the threshold. Results showed that the here developed EC system could be a viable method for the removal of TCA from cork discs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-88
Number of pages9
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Volume361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

Membranes
Wine
membrane
Ion exchange
Anodes
Cathodes
Sodium Chloride
Positive ions
reactor
cork
removal
2,4,6-trichloroanisole
ion exchange
fold
Cations
detection
wine
effect
method

Keywords

  • 2,4,6-TCA
  • Cork stoppers
  • Electrochemical reactors
  • Ion exchange membranes
  • Reactor design

Cite this

@article{960fa946b22b4a32a05910971e003d54,
title = "Electro-technologies for the removal of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole from naturally contaminated cork discs: reactor design and proof of concept",
abstract = "The electrochemical (EC) process for the removal of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) from cork discs was investigated for the first time. For process development, six different EC reactors (based on a 3-compartment set-up) and four process variables were tested. Independently of the reactor design used, the application of a low level direct current for 8 h (10 mA, 0.16 mA/cm2) had a positive effect on TCA removal. The best option is to place the cork discs in a middle compartment separated from the cathode compartment by the use of a passive membrane, and from the anode compartment by a cation exchange membrane. In this reactor design, the TCA levels in 78{\%} of the cork discs decreased to values below limit of detection (0.49 ng/L; TCA initial concentration between 0.5 and 2 ng/L). By immersing the discs’ in a saline solution for 24 h prior current application, the TCA removal was improved by 10–15{\%}. When the 34 cork discs contaminated with 2.5 times-fold more TCA were subjected to EC after 24 h immersion in the saline solution, the percentage of discs in which TCA concentration was below 0.49 ng/L decreased to 41{\%}. Still, and considering that TCA perception threshold in wines starts at 1.5 ng/L, 85{\%} of the cork discs exposed to EC reatment presented TCA levels below the threshold. Results showed that the here developed EC system could be a viable method for the removal of TCA from cork discs.",
keywords = "2,4,6-TCA, Cork stoppers, Electrochemical reactors, Ion exchange membranes, Reactor design",
author = "Paula Guedes and Mateus, {Eduardo P.} and Ribeiro, {Alexandra B.} and Fernandes, {Jos{\'e} P.}",
note = "info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/5876/147274/PT# Financial support was provided by Amorim Cork Research and CENSE -Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research which is financed by national funds from FCT/MEC ( UID/AMB/04085/2013 ). P. Guedes acknowledges Funda{\cc}{\~a}o para a Ci{\^e}ncia e a Tecnologia for the Post-Doc fellowship SFRH/BPD/114660/2016.",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.040",
language = "English",
volume = "361",
pages = "80--88",
journal = "Chemical Engineering Journal",
issn = "0300-9467",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Electro-technologies for the removal of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole from naturally contaminated cork discs: reactor design and proof of concept

AU - Guedes, Paula

AU - Mateus, Eduardo P.

AU - Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

AU - Fernandes, José P.

N1 - info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/5876/147274/PT# Financial support was provided by Amorim Cork Research and CENSE -Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research which is financed by national funds from FCT/MEC ( UID/AMB/04085/2013 ). P. Guedes acknowledges Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia for the Post-Doc fellowship SFRH/BPD/114660/2016.

PY - 2019/4/1

Y1 - 2019/4/1

N2 - The electrochemical (EC) process for the removal of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) from cork discs was investigated for the first time. For process development, six different EC reactors (based on a 3-compartment set-up) and four process variables were tested. Independently of the reactor design used, the application of a low level direct current for 8 h (10 mA, 0.16 mA/cm2) had a positive effect on TCA removal. The best option is to place the cork discs in a middle compartment separated from the cathode compartment by the use of a passive membrane, and from the anode compartment by a cation exchange membrane. In this reactor design, the TCA levels in 78% of the cork discs decreased to values below limit of detection (0.49 ng/L; TCA initial concentration between 0.5 and 2 ng/L). By immersing the discs’ in a saline solution for 24 h prior current application, the TCA removal was improved by 10–15%. When the 34 cork discs contaminated with 2.5 times-fold more TCA were subjected to EC after 24 h immersion in the saline solution, the percentage of discs in which TCA concentration was below 0.49 ng/L decreased to 41%. Still, and considering that TCA perception threshold in wines starts at 1.5 ng/L, 85% of the cork discs exposed to EC reatment presented TCA levels below the threshold. Results showed that the here developed EC system could be a viable method for the removal of TCA from cork discs.

AB - The electrochemical (EC) process for the removal of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) from cork discs was investigated for the first time. For process development, six different EC reactors (based on a 3-compartment set-up) and four process variables were tested. Independently of the reactor design used, the application of a low level direct current for 8 h (10 mA, 0.16 mA/cm2) had a positive effect on TCA removal. The best option is to place the cork discs in a middle compartment separated from the cathode compartment by the use of a passive membrane, and from the anode compartment by a cation exchange membrane. In this reactor design, the TCA levels in 78% of the cork discs decreased to values below limit of detection (0.49 ng/L; TCA initial concentration between 0.5 and 2 ng/L). By immersing the discs’ in a saline solution for 24 h prior current application, the TCA removal was improved by 10–15%. When the 34 cork discs contaminated with 2.5 times-fold more TCA were subjected to EC after 24 h immersion in the saline solution, the percentage of discs in which TCA concentration was below 0.49 ng/L decreased to 41%. Still, and considering that TCA perception threshold in wines starts at 1.5 ng/L, 85% of the cork discs exposed to EC reatment presented TCA levels below the threshold. Results showed that the here developed EC system could be a viable method for the removal of TCA from cork discs.

KW - 2,4,6-TCA

KW - Cork stoppers

KW - Electrochemical reactors

KW - Ion exchange membranes

KW - Reactor design

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U2 - 10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.040

DO - 10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.040

M3 - Article

VL - 361

SP - 80

EP - 88

JO - Chemical Engineering Journal

JF - Chemical Engineering Journal

SN - 0300-9467

ER -