Elaboration of mixed structured fruit formulations with agar and gellan gum: Texture, physicochemical, and sensory properties

Amanda Rodrigues Leal, Luciana de Siqueira Oliveira, Lorena Machado Farias, Carlos Artur Nascimento Alves, Juliana Nascimento da Costa, Paulina Mata, Paulo Henrique Machado de Sousa

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4 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to evaluate the influence of agar, low acyl-LA gellan gum, and high acyl-HA gellan gum on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of structured mixed fruit. The samples were prepared with mixed pulps (MP) of mango with caja (MCa), mango with cashew (MCu), mango with acerola (MAc), in the proportion 50% of each (w/w). After that, agar (100%) or low acyl (LA) gellan gum and high acyl (HA) gellan gum were added in the proportions of LA/HA (w/w): 100/0, 75/25, and 50/50, in the total concentration of 0.75% (w/v) relatively to the pulp. Tests of instrumental color, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, and water activity were performed. The texture profile of the samples was obtained through a TA-XT2i texture analyzer. Sensory evaluation was conducted through an acceptance test using a hedonic scale, a check-all-that-apply test (CATA), and consumption intention. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was generated from the CATA data by graphs of internal preference maps (IPM) and penalty analysis. The structured fruit samples presented similar physicochemical characteristics to each other. However, the formulation with agar provided higher acidity and lower pH. The formulations containing agar showed lower hardness than those containing gellan gum. The adherence was higher in the LA100/HA0 structured fruit. Moreover, the values of this parameter reduced as the HA proportions increased. The means in the acceptance tests ranged from 6 (slightly liked) to 7 (moderately liked), and the tasters obtained a higher preference for the LA50/HA50 sample and lower for the LA100/HA0 formulation according to the IPM. It was concluded that the formulations containing agar, LA, and HA gellan gum presented very similar physicochemical characteristics, and the sensory analysis of the different structured samples indicated that these were similar and well accepted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100294
JournalInternational Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Agar-agar
  • Check-all-that-apply (CATA)
  • Fruit gels
  • High-acyl gellan gum
  • Instrumental texture profile
  • Low-acyl gellan gum


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