The Keggin phosphotungstate (PW12) and its zinc derivative (PW11Zn) were tested as oxidative catalysts for desulfurization processes using simulated and real diesels. These compounds were used as homogeneous catalysts, while the corresponding SBA-15 composites were used as heterogeneous catalysts. The comparison of their catalytic performance demonstrated that the zinc-substituted polyoxometalate is more efficient than the plenary PW12 structure. Additionally, using the heterogeneous PW11Zn@aptesSBA-15, the sustainability and catalytic efficiency was largely improved, allowing the total sulfur removal from model diesel after 1 h using a small amount of oxidant (H2O2/S = 4) under an oxidative solvent-free system. The desulfurization of real diesels was performed under similar conditions, achieving 87.8% of efficiency using the PW11Zn@aptesSBA-15 catalyst. Furthermore, the catalyst maintained its activity over consecutive desulfurization cycles. The cost-effective operational conditions achieved with PW11Zn@aptesSBA-15 turn this into a promising material to be used in an industrial scale to treat diesel.