Effect of Phosphogypsum on the Clinkerization Temperature of Portland Cement Clinker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Phosphogypsum (PG) is a pollutant residue resulting from the production of phosphoric acid in the phosphated fertilizers industry. About 180 millions of tons of PG are generated worldwide per year, which originates storage problems because of the environmental restrictions and the high costs of storage spaces. Taking into account the mineralizer properties of PG it has been studied a way to valorize this residue as an alternative material in the production of Portland cement clinker. The PG and the raw-materials (limestone, marl, sand and iron oxide) were chemical, mineralogical and thermally characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis and termogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA). After milling, the phosphogypsum was mixed with the raw-materials in different amounts up to 10% weight. The raw mixtures were submitted to two types of firing schedules, heating up to 1500ºC without any holding time or heating up to 1350ºC and holding for 20 minutes. After firing, the clinkers were analyzed by optical microscopy, milled and characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions. The clinkers were used to produce cement mortar according to NP EN 196-1 standard. The resultant test specimens were mechanically tested at 2 and 28 days according to the same standard. The obtained results show a reduction of about 140ºC in the clinkerization temperature, when a raw mixture with 5% phosphogypsum was used. Standard clinkers, without phosphogypsum addition, which were fired at 1500ºC, originated test specimens with a compressive strength of 48.1MPa at 28 days. Test specimens produced with clinker containing 5% phosphogypsum present higher compressive strength values at 28 days, being 55.1MPa for clinkers produced at 1500ºC, and 49.4 MPa for clinkers produced at 1350ºC.
Original languageUnknown
Pages (from-to)94-98
JournalAdvanced Materials Forum
Issue numberNA
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013

Cite this