Mozambique introduced rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix, GSK Biologicals) in the National Immunization Program in September 2015 with the objective of reducing the burden of total diarrheal disease and specifically severe rotavirus disease. This study aimed to evaluate the early impact of rotavirus vaccine in reducing all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalizations.
We analysed stool specimens collected from children under five years old, between January 2014 and June 2017 within the National Surveillance for Acute Diarrhea. We compared annual changes in rotavirus positivity, median age of children hospitalized for rotavirus and the number of all-cause for diarrheal hospitalizations. Rotavirus detection was performed using enzyme immunoassay.
During this period, 1296 samples were collected and analyzed. Rotavirus positivity before vaccine introduction was 40.2% (39/97) in 2014 and 38.3% (225/588) in 2015, then after vaccine introduction reduced to 12.2% and 13.5% in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The median age of children hospitalized for rotavirus was 9 and 11 months in 2014 and 2015 and 10 months in 2016 and 2017. Rotavirus hospitalizations exhibited a seasonal peak prior to vaccine introduction, between June and September in 2014 and 2015, coinciding with winter period in Mozambique. After vaccine introduction, the peak was delayed until August to December in 2016 and was substantially diminished. There was a reduction in all-cause acute diarrhea hospitalizations in children aged 0-11 months after vaccine introduction.
We observed a reduction in rotavirus positivity and in the number of all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations after vaccine introduction. The data suggest rotavirus vaccine is having a positive impact on the control of rotavirus diarrheal disease in Mozambique.
- Acute diarrhea disease
- Impact vaccine
- Rotavirus vaccine