Early biomarkers of extracapsular extension of prostate cancer using MRI-derived semantic features

Adalgisa Guerra, Filipe Caseiro Alves, Kris Maes, Steven Joniau, João Cassis, Rui Maio, Marília Cravo, Helena Mouriño

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BACKGROUND: To construct a model based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and histological and clinical variables for the prediction of pathology-detected extracapsular extension (pECE) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: We performed a prospective 3 T MRI study comparing the clinical and MRI data on pECE obtained from patients treated using robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) at our institution. The covariates under consideration were prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, the patient's age, prostate volume, and MRI interpretative features for predicting pECE based on the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2.0 (v2), as well as tumor capsular contact length (TCCL), length of the index lesion, and prostate biopsy Gleason score (GS). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were applied to explore the statistical associations and construct the model. We also recruited an additional set of participants-which included 59 patients from external institutions-to validate the model. RESULTS: The study participants included 184 patients who had undergone RARP at our institution, 26% of whom were pECE+ (i.e., pECE positive). Significant predictors of pECE+ were TCCL, capsular disruption, measurable ECE on MRI, and a GS of ≥7(4 + 3) on a prostate biopsy. The strongest predictor of pECE+ is measurable ECE on MRI, and in its absence, a combination of TCCL and prostate biopsy GS was significantly effective for detecting the patient's risk of being pECE+. Our predictive model showed a satisfactory performance at distinguishing between patients with pECE+ and patients with pECE-, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.90 (86.0-95.8%), high sensitivity (86%), and moderate specificity (70%). CONCLUSIONS: Our predictive model, based on consistent MRI features (i.e., measurable ECE and TCCL) and a prostate biopsy GS, has satisfactory performance and sufficiently high sensitivity for predicting pECE+. Hence, the model could be a valuable tool for surgeons planning preoperative nerve sparing, as it would reduce positive surgical margins.

Original languageEnglish
Article number74
JournalCancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 23 Dec 2022


  • Capsular contact
  • Extracapsular extension
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radical prostatectomy
  • Sematic features
  • Staging


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