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The history of doping is as old as sport itself. From ancient times, athletes try to win at any cost, using all the resources they can discover. The WADA launches every year a List of forbidden substances and methods because a new year is an opportunity of improving the drugs or methods to achieve performances in sports which are not fair and can harm the athlete’s health. Besides the List, doping has become so sophisticated that athletes have to be controlled by a biological passport that can figure out if they are cheating about improving hemoglobin or steroids and so being checked in their “physiologic values, not so physiologic after all.”.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Sports Medicine Physician
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9783030104337
ISBN (Print)9783030104320
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Athletic injuries
  • Athletic performance
  • Controlled substances
  • Diuretics
  • Doping in sports
  • Hormones
  • Sports medicine


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