DNA-Based Tools to Certify Authenticity of Rice Varieties—An Overview

Maria Beatriz Vieira, Maria V. Faustino, Tiago F. Lourenço, M. Margarida Oliveira

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most cultivated and consumed crops worldwide. It is mainly produced in Asia but, due to its large genetic pool, it has expanded to several ecosystems, latitudes and climatic conditions. Europe is a rice producing region, especially in the Mediterranean countries, that grow mostly typical japonica varieties. The European consumer interest in rice has increased over the last decades towards more exotic types, often more expensive (e.g., aromatic rice) and Europe is a net importer of this commodity. This has increased food fraud opportunities in the rice supply chain, which may deliver mixtures with lower quality rice, a problem that is now global. The development of tools to clearly identify undesirable mixtures thus became urgent. Among the various tools available, DNA-based markers are considered particularly reliable and stable for discrimination of rice varieties. This review covers aspects ranging from rice diversity and fraud issues to the DNA-based methods used to distinguish varieties and detect unwanted mixtures. Although not exhaustive, the review covers the diversity of strategies and ongoing improvements already tested, highlighting important advantages and disadvantages in terms of costs, reliability, labor-effort and potential scalability for routine fraud detection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number258
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Adulteration
  • DNA barcoding
  • DNA-markers
  • Fraud
  • High-resolution melting
  • Isothermal amplification
  • Multiplex
  • PCR
  • SNPs
  • SSRs


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