Eucalyptus globulus, a non-native species, is currently the most abundant forest species in Portugal. This economically important forest tree is exploited mainly for the production of pulp for the paper industry. The community of Botryosphaeriaceae species occurring on diseased and healthy E. globulus trees was studied on plantations throughout the country. Nine species from three different genera were identified, namely Botryosphaeria (B. dothidea), Diplodia (D. corticola and D. seriata) and Neofusicoccum (N. australe, N. algeriense, N. eucalyptorum, N. kwambonambiense, N. parvum and Neofusicoccum sp.). Of these, N. algeriense, D. corticola and D. seriata are reported for the first time on E. globulus, while N. algeriense, N. eucalyptorum and N. kwambonambiense correspond to first reports in Portugal. The genus Neofusicoccum was clearly dominant with N. australe and N. eucalyptorum being the most abundant species on both diseased and healthy trees. In artificial inoculation trials representative isolates from all nine species were shown to be pathogenic to E. globulus but there were marked differences in aggressiveness between them. Thus, D. corticola and N. kwambonambiense were the most aggressive while B. dothidea and D. seriata were the least aggressive of the species studied.