Background: Dolutegravir is approved for the treatment of HIV-1 patients exposed to other integrase inhibitors, but the decision to use dolutegravir in this setting should be informed by drug resistance testing. Objectives: This study determined the extent of disagreement in predicted residual dolutegravir activity after raltegravir use, and identified individual mutational patterns for which uncertainty exists among HIV-1 expert systems. Study design: Mutation patterns were classified in raltegravir signature pathways including positions 143, 148 and 155, and interpreted into clinically informative resistance levels using genotypic drug resistance interpretation systems ANRS v24, HIVdb v7.0 and Rega v9.1.0, and instructions of dolutegravir use as approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Results: In 216HIV-1 patients failing raltegravir-therapy, 87% patients displayed mutations associated with resistance towards integrase inhibitors. A total of 141 unique mutational patterns were observed, with N155H (25.4%), Q148H (16.2%) and Y143R (8.3%) the most prevalent signature mutations. The Q148 pathway occurred almost exclusively in HIV-1 subtype B viruses. Concordances in predicted dolutegravir susceptibility scores among 5 systems were obtained in 57.8% of patients, and concordant intermediate resistant and concordant resistant scores were only observed in 6.5% and 0.9% of patients, respectively. However, systems individually scored higher levels of dolutegravir intermediate resistance and resistance, ranging from 4.2% to 10.2% and from 14.8% to 22.7% of patients, respectively. A consensus on interpreting the extent of residual activity was lacking in 34.7% of patients and was highly resistance pathway-specific. Conclusions: Dolutegravir may potentially be effective in the majority of HIV-1 patients failing raltegravir, but concern over the uncertainty in predicted residual activity could withhold clinicians from prescribing dolutegravir during its clinical assessment.
UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
- SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-Being