Dioxins arc highly toxic and ubiquitous compounds that are unintentional by-products of several chemical processes on earth. According to the earth pollutant terminology, they are next to the nuclear catastrophes. It is because of their concerns over adverse health effects, a number of countries have introduced stringent emission standards. The present review focuses on entire sources of dioxins present in the environment. They are broadly classified into four major categories such as, incineration, combustion, industrial and reservoir sources. State-of-the-art remediation technologies available for reducing dioxins formation and emission from the important sources such as, flue gas, fly ash and soil were described in detail. Further, in order to get a comprehensive perception about the dioxins subject, topics such as, dioxins transfer in the environment, their mode of action, toxicity equivalence factor, exposure and health risk assessment were highlighted in brief in the introduction. A future prospects based on the findings of the review was discussed at the end. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.