Among the environmental emerging concern rare earth elements, lanthanum (La) is one of the most common and reactive. Lanthanum is widely used in numerous modern technologies and applications, and its intense usage results in increasing discharges into the environment, with potentially deleterious consequences to earthlings. Therefore, we exposed the important food resource and powerful monitoring tool Manila clam to two environmentally relevant concentrations of La (0.3 µg L−1 and 0.9 µg L−1) for 6 days, through water, to assess the bioaccumulation pattern in the gills, digestive gland, and remaining body. The La bioaccumulation was measured after 1 (T1), 2 (T2), and 6 (T6) days of exposure. Lanthanum was bioaccumulated after 2 days, and the levels increased in all tissues in a dose-dependent manner. When exposed to 0.3 µg L−1, the enrichment factor pattern was gills > body > digestive gland. However, when exposed to 0.9 µg L−1, the pattern appears to change to gills > digestive gland > body. Tissue portioning appears to be linked with exposed concentration: In higher exposure levels, digestive gland seems to gain importance, probably associated with detoxification mechanisms. Here, we describe for the first time La bioaccumulation in these different tissues in a bivalve species. Future studies dealing with the bioaccumulation and availability of La should connect them with additional water parameters (such as temperature, pH, and major cations).
- Dose-dependent bioaccumulation
- Emergent contaminant
- Enrichment factor
- Ruditapes philippinarum