Differences in the genotype frequencies of genes related to blood pressure regulation-a comparative study between South-West Europe and Peri-equatorial Africa

Laura Aguiar, Ildegário Semente, Joana Ferreira, Andreia Carvalho, Alda P. Silva, Cristina Caroça, Helena Caria, Albertino Damasceno, Maria J. Laires, Luís Sardinha, Cristina Monteiro, Mário R. Mascarenhas, Paula Faustino, Ângela Inácio, Manuel Bicho

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Abstract

Background: Since the emergence of the genus Homo, hominids have occupied a wide variety of environments, facing different selective pressures. Objectives: The aim this study is to compare genotype frequencies between South-West Europe and Peri-equatorial Africa in genes potentially modulators of blood pressure. Methods: The analyzed sample consisted of 325 individuals from Portugal and 226 individuals from Africa (48 from Mozambique and 178 from São Tomé and Príncipe). The following genetic variants were analyzed: intron 4 VNTR in eNOS, rs1050829 in G6PD,-3.7kb α-thalassemic deletion in HBA, rs1800457 in CYB5R3, Hp 1/2 genotype/phenotype in Hp and intron 16 I/D in ACE. Results: Frequencies of genotypes with the 4a allele in eNOS (p<0.001), the G allele in G6PD (p<0.001), the α-3.7 kb in HBA (p <0.001), the C allele in the CYB5R3 (p<0.001) were higher in Peri-equatorial Africa. The Hp 1.1 genotype of Hp has a higher frequency in Peri-equatorial Africa (p=0.002). ACE shows no significant differences. Conclusion: Results show differences in five genetic variants. Conditions of extreme heat and humidity, characteristic of Peri-equatorial Africa, have been associated with increased sodium loss. This study suggests that selected compensatory mechanisms printed in the genome, are nowadays risk factors for hypertension in Peri-equatorial Africa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1669-1676
Number of pages8
JournalAfrican Health Sciences
Volume21
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Africa
  • Blood pressure
  • Genetics

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